ORM Usage

ORM Usage

An example of beego/orm is set out below.

All the code samples in this section are based on this example unless otherwise stated.

In v2.x, there is a big big change:

The ORM instance should be stateless, so it’s now thread safe.

package main

import (

type User struct {
	Id          int
	Name        string
	Profile     *Profile   `orm:"rel(one)"` // OneToOne relation

type Profile struct {
	Id          int
	Age         int16
	User        *User   `orm:"reverse(one)"` // Reverse relationship (optional)

func init() {
	// Need to register model in init
	orm.RegisterModel(new(User), new(Profile))
package main

import (
	_ "github.com/go-sql-driver/mysql"

func init() {
	orm.RegisterDriver("mysql", orm.DRMySQL)

	orm.RegisterDataBase("default", "mysql", "root:root@/orm_test?charset=utf8")

func main() {

// Using default, you can use other database
	o := orm.NewOrm()

	profile := new(Profile)
	profile.Age = 30

	user := new(User)
	user.Profile = profile
	user.Name = "slene"


Set up database

ORM supports three popular databases. Here are the tested drivers, you need to import them:

import (
	_ "github.com/go-sql-driver/mysql"
	_ "github.com/lib/pq"
	_ "github.com/mattn/go-sqlite3"


Default databases:


// < 1.6
// param 1: driverName
// param 2: database type
// This mapping driverName and database type
// mysql / sqlite3 / postgres / TiDB registered by default already
orm.RegisterDriver("mysql", orm.DRMySQL)


ORM must register a database with alias default.

ORM uses golang built-in connection pool.

// param 1:        Database alias. ORM will use it to switch database.
// param 2:        driverName
// param 3:        connection string
orm.RegisterDataBase("default", "mysql", "root:root@/orm_test?charset=utf8")

// param 4 (optional):  set maximum idle connections
// param 4 (optional):  set maximum connections (go >= 1.2)
maxIdle := 30
maxConn := 30
orm.RegisterDataBase("default", "mysql", "root:root@/orm_test?charset=utf8", maxIdle, maxConn)

See Test for more information on database connection strings.


Set maximum idle connections according to database alias:

orm.SetMaxIdleConns("default", 30)


Set maximum connections (go >= 1.2) according to database alias:

orm.SetMaxOpenConns("default", 30)

Timezone Config

ORM uses time.Local by default

  • used for ORM automatically created time
  • convert time queried from database into ORM local time

You can change it if needed:

// Set to UTC time
orm.DefaultTimeLoc = time.UTC

ORM will get timezone of database while performing RegisterDataBase. When setting or getting time.Time it will convert accordingly to match system time and make sure the time is correct.


  • In Sqlite3, set and get use UTC time by default.
  • When using go-sql-driver driver,please pay attention to your DSN config. From a version of go-sql-driver the default uses utc timezone not local. So if you use another timezone, please set it. eg: root:root@/orm_test?charset=utf8&loc=Asia%2FShanghai ref: loc / parseTime

Registering Model

Registering a model is mandatory if you use orm.QuerySeter for advanced queries.

Otherwise, you don’t need to do this if you’re using raw SQL queries and map struct only. See Raw SQL Query


Register the Model you defined. The best practice is to have a single models.go file and register in it’s init function.

Mini models.go

package main

import "github.com/beego/beego/v2/client/orm"

type User struct {
	Id   int
	name string

func init(){

RegisterModel can register multiple models at the same time:

orm.RegisterModel(new(User), new(Profile), new(Post))

For detailed struct definition, see Model define

Generate Tables

You may want Beego to automatically create your database tables. One way to do this is by using the method described in the cli documentation. Alternatively, you could choose to autogenerate your tables by including the following in your main.go file in your main block.

// Database alias.
name := "default"

// Drop table and re-create.
force := true

// Print log.
verbose := true

// Error.
err := orm.RunSyncdb(name, force, verbose)
if err != nil {

After the initial “bee run” command, change the values of force and verbose to false. The default behavior for Beego is to add additional columns when the model is updated. You will need to manually handle dropping your columns if they are removed from your model.


Using table prefix

orm.RegisterModelWithPrefix("prefix_", new(User))

The created table name is prefix_user


You may need to manage db pools by yourself. (eg: needing two queries in one connection)

But you want to use awesome orm features. Voila!

var driverName, aliasName string
// driverName name of your driver (go-sql-driver: mysql)
// aliasName custom db alias name
var db *sql.DB
o := orm.NewOrmWithDB(driverName, aliasName, db)


Get *sql.DB from the registered databases. This will use default as default if you do not set.

db, err := orm.GetDB()
if err != nil {
	fmt.Println("get default DataBase")

db, err := orm.GetDB("alias")
if err != nil {
	fmt.Println("get alias DataBase")


Reset registered models. Commonly used to write test cases.



Let’s see how to use Ormer API:

var o orm.Ormer
o = orm.NewOrm() // create a Ormer // While running NewOrm, it will run orm.BootStrap (only run once in the whole app lifetime) to validate the definition between models and cache it.

If you want to use DB transaction,we will return TxOrm instance ORM Transaction

Comparing with v1.x, we designed another interface TxOrm to handle transaction.

From v1.x, we found that many users reuse global ORM instance to handle transaction. It made unpredictable result.

When you use TxOrm, you should drop it after ending transaction. It’s stateful object.


Pass in a table name or a Model object and return a QuerySeter

o := orm.NewOrm()
var qs orm.QuerySeter
qs = o.QueryTable("user")
// Panics if the table can't be found


We remove Using method since some users use this method in wrong way and then met some concurrent problems.

You can use NewOrmUsingDB:

o := orm.NewOrmUsingDB("db_name")


Use raw SQL query:

Raw function will return a RawSeter to execute a query with the SQL and params provided:

o := NewOrm()
var r orm.RawSeter
r = o.Raw("UPDATE user SET name = ? WHERE name = ?", "testing", "slene")


The current db infomation used by ORM

type Driver interface {
	Name() string
	Type() DriverType
orm.RegisterDataBase("db1", "mysql", "root:root@/orm_db2?charset=utf8")
orm.RegisterDataBase("db2", "sqlite3", "data.db")

o1 := orm.NewOrmUsingDB("db1")
dr := o1.Driver()
fmt.Println(dr.Name() == "db1") // true
fmt.Println(dr.Type() == orm.DRMySQL) // true

o2 := orm.NewOrmUsingDB("db2")
dr = o2.Driver()
fmt.Println(dr.Name() == "db2") // true
fmt.Println(dr.Type() == orm.DRSqlite) // true

Setting orm.Debug to true will print out SQL queries.

It may cause performance issues. It is not recommended to be used in a production env.

func main() {
	orm.Debug = true

Prints to os.Stderr by default.

You can change it to your own io.Writer

var w io.Writer
// Use your `io.Writer`
orm.DebugLog = orm.NewLog(w)

Logs formatting

[ORM] - time - [Queries/database name] - [operation/executing time] - [SQL query] - separate params with `,`  -errors 
[ORM] - 2013-08-09 13:18:16 - [Queries/default] - [    db.Exec /     0.4ms] - [INSERT INTO `user` (`name`) VALUES (?)] - `slene`
[ORM] - 2013-08-09 13:18:16 - [Queries/default] - [    db.Exec /     0.5ms] - [UPDATE `user` SET `name` = ? WHERE `id` = ?] - `astaxie`, `14`
[ORM] - 2013-08-09 13:18:16 - [Queries/default] - [db.QueryRow /     0.4ms] - [SELECT `id`, `name` FROM `user` WHERE `id` = ?] - `14`
[ORM] - 2013-08-09 13:18:16 - [Queries/default] - [    db.Exec /     0.4ms] - [INSERT INTO `post` (`user_id`,`title`,`content`) VALUES (?, ?, ?)] - `14`, `beego orm`, `powerful amazing`
[ORM] - 2013-08-09 13:18:16 - [Queries/default] - [   db.Query /     0.4ms] - [SELECT T1.`name` `User__Name`, T0.`user_id` `User`, T1.`id` `User__Id` FROM `post` T0 INNER JOIN `user` T1 ON T1.`id` = T0.`user_id` WHERE T0.`id` = ? LIMIT 1000] - `68`
[ORM] - 2013-08-09 13:18:16 - [Queries/default] - [    db.Exec /     0.4ms] - [DELETE FROM `user` WHERE `id` = ?] - `14`
[ORM] - 2013-08-09 13:18:16 - [Queries/default] - [   db.Query /     0.3ms] - [SELECT T0.`id` FROM `post` T0 WHERE T0.`user_id` IN (?) ] - `14`
[ORM] - 2013-08-09 13:18:16 - [Queries/default] - [    db.Exec /     0.4ms] - [DELETE FROM `post` WHERE `id` IN (?)] - `68`

The log contains all the database operations, transactions, prepare etc.