Config Module

Parsing Configuration Files

The config module is used for parsing configuration files, inspired by database/sql. It supports ini, json, xml and yaml files. You can install it by:

go get

If you want to parse xml or yaml, you should first install:

go get -u

and then import:

import _ ""

Remote configure middleware

Now we support etcd as the implementation.


Using package

In v2.x, Beego create a globalInstance, so that users could use config module directly.

val, err := config.String("mykey")

Beego use ini implementation and loads config from config/app.conf.

If the file not found or got some error, Beego outputs some warning log.

Or you can initialize the globalInstance by:

_ import ""
err := InitGlobalInstance("toml", "some config")
// ...
val, err := config.String("mykey")
// ...

Create instance manually

Initialize a parser object:

iniconf, err := NewConfig("ini", "testini.conf")
if err != nil {

Get data from parser:


Parser methods

Here are the parser’s methods:

// Configer defines how to get and set value from configuration raw data.
type Configer interface {
    // support section::key type in given key when using ini type.
    Set(key, val string) error

    // support section::key type in key string when using ini and json type; Int,Int64,Bool,Float,DIY are same.
    String(key string) (string, error)
    // get string slice
    Strings(key string) ([]string, error)
    Int(key string) (int, error)
    Int64(key string) (int64, error)
    Bool(key string) (bool, error)
    Float(key string) (float64, error)
    // support section::key type in key string when using ini and json type; Int,Int64,Bool,Float,DIY are same.
    DefaultString(key string, defaultVal string) string
    // get string slice
    DefaultStrings(key string, defaultVal []string) []string
    DefaultInt(key string, defaultVal int) int
    DefaultInt64(key string, defaultVal int64) int64
    DefaultBool(key string, defaultVal bool) bool
    DefaultFloat(key string, defaultVal float64) float64

    // DIY return the original value
    DIY(key string) (interface{}, error)

    GetSection(section string) (map[string]string, error)

    Unmarshaler(prefix string, obj interface{}, opt ...DecodeOption) error
    Sub(key string) (Configer, error)
    OnChange(key string, fn func(value string))
    SaveConfigFile(filename string) error


  1. All Default* methods, default value will be returned if key not found or go some error;
  2. DIY returns original value. When you want to use this method, you should be care of value’s type.
  3. GetSection returns all configure items under the section. section has different meaning in different implementation.
  4. Unmarshaler try to decode the configs to obj. And the parameter prefix is similar with section.
  5. Sub is similar to GetSection, but Sub will wrap result as an Configer instance.
  6. Onchange is used to listen change event. But most of file-based implementations don’t support this method.
  7. SaveConfigFile output configs to a file.
  8. Some implementation support key like a.b.c.d, but not all implementations support it and not all of them use . as separator.

Configuration sections

The ini file supports configuration sections. You can get values inside a section by using section::key.

For example:

key1 = "asta"
key2 = "xie"

You can use iniconf.String("demo::key2") to get the value.

How to Obtain Environment Variables

After Pull Request “Support get environment variables in config #1636” was merged into the code, beego supports using environment variables in the configuration file.

The format for this is ${ENVIRONMENTVARIABLE} within the configuration file which is equivalent to value = os.Getenv('ENVIRONMENTVARIABLE'). Beego will only check for environment variables if the value begins with ${ and ends with }.

Additionally, a default value can be configured for the case that there is no environment variable set or the environment variable is empty. This is accomplished by using the format ${ENVVAR||defaultvalue}, for example ${GOPATH||/home/asataxie/workspace/go}. This || is used to split environment values and default values. See /config/config_test.go in the beego repo for more examples and edge cases about how these environment variables and default values are parsed.

For example:

password = ${MyPWD}
token = ${TOKEN||astaxie}
user = ${MyUser||beego}

If the environment variable $TOKEN is set, its value will be used for the token configuration value and beego.AppConfig.String("token") would return its value. If $TOKEN is not set, the value would then be the string astaxie.

Please note: The environment variables are only read when the configuration file is parsed, not when configuration item is obtained by a function like beego.AppConfig.String(string).